Ministry of the
Solicitor General

Hazard Identification Report 2019 - Section F - Public Safety and Security Hazards

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION REPORT 2019 - SECTION F - PUBLIC SAFETY AND SECURITY HAZARDS

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Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Program

Hazard Identification Report 2019
Section F: Public Safety and Security Hazards

Office of the Fire Marshal & Emergency Management

Introduction

The Hazard Report contains information profiles for hazards, including a high-level overview of possible consequences. It is divided into 10 parts; an introduction and 9 sub-sections labelled 2a-i as follows:

  1. Agriculture and Food
  2. Environmental
  3. Extraterrestrial
  4. Hazardous Materials
  5. Health
  6. Public Safety and Security
  7. Structural
  8. Supply and Distribution
  9. Transportation

Terrorism

Terrorism is a risk factor for all hazards included in this profile.

Terrorism is, according to section 83.01 of the Criminal Code of Canada: “an act or omission, in or outside Canada that is committed in whole or in part for a political, religious or ideological purpose, objective or cause with the intention of intimidating the public”.[1] 

The Canadian government emphasizes that terrorism is a leading threat to Canada's national security.[2] Terrorism is a possible trigger for each of the hazard profiles included here, but other motivations are perhaps just as likely. Some instances may appear on their face ‘terrorism’ but are in fact due to other causes, such as mental health issues of the perpetrators or a combination of these and others.[3] In addition, motive is often unclear at the onset of an actual or threatened action.

While law enforcement agencies prepare for and mitigate terrorism with very specific expertise, initial response actions in incidents of public safety take place regardless of the trigger or cause, as it takes time to classify such events.[4] In addition, emergency management expertise is not specific to terrorism or violent crime. Given this context, it is therefore critical for Emergency Managers to connect with key law enforcement partners to better understand how terrorism may play a role in hazard risk, including the RCMP who have jurisdiction for terrorism and other law enforcement agencies.

Mass Gatherings

Mass gatherings are another important factor to consider when assessing the risk of public safety hazards. Additionally, organizers of formal mass gatherings or special events should conduct all-hazards risk assessments as part of their preparation and planning process.

Mass gatherings are a perfectly normal and expected part of community life across Ontario, usually with few or no problems or threats to public safety outside of normal and routine day-to-day thresholds.

Both formal (festivals, sporting events, markets) and informal mass gatherings (airports, shopping complexes, transit and public plazas), represent a unique set of public safety considerations for emergency management personnelWhile municipalities across Ontario have strict building use restrictions and regulations designed to manage the risk of mass gatherings, even events that obtain permits and adhere to guidance given by inspectors and officials are not free of risk.

The characteristics of mass gatherings include:

  • The convergence of large numbers of people (sometimes including vulnerable groups, such as children) to a central location
  • Non-routine provisions in order to ensure transportation and health and safety requirements
  • Large media presence
  • Unique communication needs
  • A number of factors should be considered when evaluating the potential risk posed by a mass gathering, including:
  • Operational issues (e.g. cancellations of performances)
  • Event activities (e.g. noise, smoke)
  • Performance Actions (e.g. violent lyrics)
  • Spectator Factors (e.g. alcohol and drugs)
  • Security Factors (e.g. excessive force)
  • Social Factors (e.g. team rivalries)
  • Weather (e.g. thunderstorm)
  • Environmental hazards (e.g. earthquake)
  • Human-caused hazards (e.g. structural failure)

Active Threat

Go to next hazard: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive (CBRNE)

Definition

An active threat is a situation where an individual is actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a populated area.

Description

Active threat attacks usually occur in public areas, or in venues targeted for social, cultural, symbolic, or political significance. This type of attack does not include more common incidents such as those connected with domestic violence or known criminal activity.[5]

Types of attack include:

  • Active Shooter (mass shooting): an incident involving multiple victims of firearms-related violence.
  • Vehicle Ramming Attacks: a perpetrator deliberately rams a motor vehicle into a building, crowd of people, or another vehicle.
  • Stabbing Attacks: a perpetrator uses a blade or knife to deliberately harm people in a populated area.
  • Improvised Bomb: “A device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, incapacitate, harass or distract. It may incorporate military stores, but is normally devised from non-military components”.[6] An example is a pressure-cooker bomb, which perpetrators create by inserting explosive material into a pressure cooker. This does not include Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDD) or Radiological Explosive Devices (RED).

These kinds of potential weapons are easy to obtain and it is therefore difficult to prevent their use in attacks.[7]

Perpetrators in active threat incidents generally seek out ‘soft targets’, which are civilian sites where people congregate. Commonly the perpetrator has the aim of inflicting as much injury as possible to the greatest number of people.[8] Such events are unpredictable and evolve quickly[9]. In most cases, there is no pattern or method to the selection of victims, and the assailant uses widely available means. This means that it is difficult to predict and defend against such incidents.[10]

During large civic events, sporting events and other special events, sites are often secured and ‘hardened’ using bollards, trucks and other means, in order to limit the opportunity for attacks.

Past incidents demonstrate that the effects of ‘active threat’, including psychological and stress injuries in addition to direct physical effects. These psychological injuries often include victims and first responders who are directly involved, as well as others who hear about the event or experience the event or aftermath through various media channels[11].

Emergency services personnel, including police, fire and paramedical services across Canada, often have specialized training in order to respond appropriately to these types of incidents. Similarly, it is now common for College and University campuses, as well as corporate and government security and risk management programs, to include specific procedures and practices for preventing, mitigating and responding to such threats.[12]

Spatial Scale, Timing and Warning Period

Spatial Scale: The size of the impacted area depends on the nature of the attack(s).

Timing: Active threats can occur at any time of year, although locations, dates and times may be picked based on their significance and the number of people likely in the targeted area on the given date and time.

Warning Period: As this is a human caused hazard, warning may range from threats to intelligence provided by law enforcement agencies, to no warning at all.

Potential Impacts

Potential impacts may include:

  • Injury or death. May strain the health system and response resources.
  • Reports of missing individuals. The need for search and rescue, family reunification operations
  • Property and structural damage, the need for repair. Possible impact on Critical Infrastructure.
  • Disruption or closure of government, business or financial institutions.
  • The need for site or area access restrictions.
  • The need for evacuation or shelter in place.
  • The need for emergency provision of essential needs, including food.
  • The need for debris management
  • The need for increased public safety or policing measures.

Secondary Hazards

Secondary hazards associated with Active Threat may include:

  • Hazardous Materials Incident
  • Building/Structural issues
  • Transportation disruption
  • Mass Gathering incident

Past Incidents

Active Shooter

Canadian examples of mass shooting attacks include:

Danforth, Toronto, ON 2018: Single gunman killed 2 people and wounded 13 using a semiautomatic pistol. He committed suicide after a shootout with police.

  • Quebec City, QC 2017: Single gunman killed 6 people and wounded 18 others.
  • Scarborough, ON 2016: The perpetrator killed 3 people and wounded 2 others with a crossbow before being apprehended by police.
  • La Loche, SK 2016: After killing two teenage brothers at a house in northern Saskatchewan, the perpetrator went to a local school, where he shot and killed 2 teachers and wounded 7 others.

Ottawa, ON 2014: At the Canadian National War Memorial, the perpetrator fatally shot Corporal Nathan Cirillo, a Canadian soldier on ceremonial sentry duty. He then entered the Centre Block parliament building. After a shootout with parliament security personnel, the perpetrator was killed. Authorities placed the downtown core of Ottawa on lockdown to search for potential additional threats.

  • Moncton, NB 2014: Three officers were shot and killed and a heavily armed gunman in Moncton wounded two other officers.
  • Scarborough, ON 2012: a man in attendance at a neighbourhood party initiated a retribution shooting between rival gangs. It prompted a string of additional gunfire that killed 2 and injured 22 others. Also known as the ‘Danzig shooting’.
  • Montreal, QC 2006: One person died at the scene of Dawson College, and 19 others were hurt. Eight of them suffered serious injuries. The Perpetrator killed himself, and police later found a suicide note on his body.
  • Ottawa, ON 1999: A former OC Transpo employee shot six people, killing four, in a shooting spree at OC Transpo's St. Laurent Boulevard garage, before killing himself.
  • Taber, AB 1999: A school Shooting at W. R. Myers High School killed 1 and left 1 other injured.
  • Montreal, QC 1992: An engineering professor killed four of his colleagues and wounded a staff member at Concordia University. He was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison.
  • Montreal, QC 1989: Fourteen women died in the Ecole Polytechnique shooting, also known as the Montreal Massacre. In a planned attack, the perpetrator entered the school and killed 14 women in 20 minutes before shooting himself.
  • Quebec, QC 1984: 3 killed and 13 wounded in an attack on the Quebec National Assembly.
  • Ottawa, ON 1975: School Shooting at St. Pius X High School resulted in 5 injured, 1 killed.
  • Brampton 1975: A student at Brampton Centennial Secondary School used a rifle to kill three people and injure 13.
  • Kettle Valley, BC 1972: An individual absconded from a secure psychiatric hospital, killed 6 people and injured 3 others using a .22-caliber rifle and a .30-caliber rifle at four different locations in the Kettle Valley on a single day.

Vehicle Ramming

Canadian examples of vehicle ramming attacks include:

  • Toronto, ON 2018: The perpetrator rented a Ryder van and drove into pedestrians along Yonge Street in the North York City Centre business district of Toronto, killing 10 and wounding 16 others.
  • Edmonton, AB 2017: The perpetrator stabbed a police officer and struck four pedestrians with a U-Haul truck. This incident appeared to be terrorism motivated.
  • Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, QC 2014: A terror car ramming that occurred in Quebec on October 20, 2014. A lone actor struck two Canadian Forces members, inspired by terrorist motives.

Stabbing Attack

Stabbing attack past incidents in Canada include:

  • Edmonton, AB 2017: The perpetrator stabbed a police officer and struck four pedestrians with a U-Haul truck while fleeing. This event appears to be linked to terrorism.
  • Regina, SK 2014: Four people were injured in random stabbing incident at the Cornwall Centre, a downtown shopping mall in Regina.

Pressure Cooker Attacks

Pressure cooker bombs have been used in a number of attacks worldwide, including the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, and the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing. A foiled plot to detonate three pressure-cooker bombs during Canada Day in 2013 targeted the parliament building in the City of Victoria.[13]

Provincial Risk Statement

Human impacts

Active threats have the potential to result in mass fatalities and injuries depending on factors such as the method of attack, motive and location. While these attacks are usually limited in scale, a high rate of injury or death is certainly possible - this is the perpetrators’ intended outcome.

Social Impacts

Because these attacks are often dramatic, with a significant ‘shock’ factor, this type of incident can cause psychological trauma and effect the functioning of the community.

Property Damage

This type of damage is not the intent of active threats, though some property damage may occur as a secondary effect.

Critical Infrastructure Disruptions

While active threats target people and groups, road closures and security perimeters resulting from an attack could have limited secondary effects on transportation and public transit systems, as well as healthcare facilities charged with receiving injured persons.

Environmental Damage

Environmental damage is extremely unlikely and would only occur as a secondary and unintentional result of this type of hazard.

Economic

Road closures or threatening activity near businesses or industries may affect their operation. There is a possibility that a business or industry may be a target, or that they are located in the impacted area.

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive

Go to previous Hazard: Active Threat

Go to next hazard: Civil Disorder

Definition

Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive (CBRNE) materials that are intentionally released with malicious intent to cause harm to humans, property, business or the environment. These materials can be weaponized or non-weaponized.[14]

Description

CBRNE incidents are any that involve the intentional or potential release of hazardous materials. This differs from hazardous materials incidents, which refers to unintended releases of a hazardous material, and active threats, which refer to improvised ‘low-sophistication’ attacks.[15]

CBRNE incidents include events such as:

  • Acts of terrorism
  • The intentional poisoning, infecting or otherwise targeting through means such as planned explosions of an individual or small group.
  • Criminal acts such as the intended release of hazardous materials in order to avoid fines or regulatory requirements.

The impact of a CBRNE incident depends on a wide range of factors, including the type and amount of material used, dispersal method, location, population density and exposure, and environmental conditions.

CBRNE incidents may lead to:[16]

  • Negative psychosocial impacts
  • mass casualties, fatalities or illness
  • Chronic health impacts
  • The creation of a hazardous environment
  • The immediate need for medical response, decontamination systems and specialized pharmaceuticals
  • The need for detection equipment

In order to respond to extreme threats such as the ones detailed above, the Province of Ontario has many resources, including Chemical, Biological, Radiological Nuclear and Explosion (CBRNE) teams, comprised of many emergency services and expert personnel. Each type has unique characteristics, as follows:[17]

  • Chemical: Weapons whose main goal is to have toxic.
  • Biological: Weapons that achieve their intended effects by infecting people with disease-causing microorganisms including viruses or other microorganisms.
  • Radiological: Weapons that involve deliberate radiation poisoning or contamination of an area with radiological sources. A Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) is a low-tech radiological weapon also known as a "dirty bomb". A Radiological exposure device (RED), also called a ‘hidden sealed source’ is a device that uses partially or fully unshielded radioactive material to expose people to significant doses of ionizing radiation without their knowledge.[18]
  • Nuclear: Explosive devices fuelled by nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter.
  • Explosives: Devices that use explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy. Also known as conventional bombs.

Spatial Scale, Timing and Warning Period

Spatial Scale: The size of the impacted area depends on the nature of the attack(s).

Timing: Terrorism/CBRNE incidents can occur at any time of year, although dates may be picked based on their significance and the number of people likely in the targeted area on the given date and time.

Warning Period: As this is a human caused hazard, warning may range from threats being received to no warning at all.

Potential Impacts

Potential impacts may include:

  • Injury or death. May strain the health system and response resources.
  • Reports of missing individuals. The need for search and rescue, family reunification operations
  • Disruption or closure of government, business or financial institutions.
  • Property and structural damage, the need for repair. Possible impact on Critical Infrastructure.
  • Strain on emergency services and response resources.
  • Overloaded communications networks.
  • The need for damage assessment.
  • The need for site or area access restrictions.
  • The need for evacuation or shelter in place.
  • The need for emergency provision of essential needs, including food.
  • The need for debris management
  • The need for increased public safety or policing measures.

Secondary Hazards

Secondary hazards associated with terrorism/CBRNE may include:

  • Hazardous Materials Incident
  • Building/Structural Collapse
  • Drinking Water Emergency
  • Agricultural/Food Emergency
  • Transportation Emergency

Past Incidents

While there are no examples of past event in Ontario, the below help inform what may be possible in the province:

  • Salisbury, UK 2018: In March 2018 Sergei Skripal, a former Russian military officer and double agent for UK intelligence services, and his daughter were poisoned with a Novichok nerve agent known as A-234. A police officer and two civilians were also poisoned, though they were not the intended target. One of the two civilians later died as a result of the poisoning.
  • London, UK 2005: The London bombing of July 7 2005 was a coordinated attack on the public transit system during rush hour. Three of explosions were detonated on the London Underground trains and one was on a bus. Fifty-two victims were killed and approximately 700 were injured.
  • Moscow 2010: In March, 2010 two suicide bombers detonated explosives at two in subway stations in Moscow killing 35 people and injuring many others.
  • Tokyo, Japan 1995: In five coordinated attacks, perpetrators released sarin on three lines of the present-day Tokyo Metro during rush hour. The act of domestic terrorism, by members of the cult movement Aum Shinrikyo, killed 12 people, severely injured 50 and caused temporary vision problems for nearly 1,000 others.

Provincial Risk Statement

The most likely type of CBRNE incident is explosive as they are relatively simple to create. High volume purchases of these ingredients may raise suspicion, however, numerous purchases at different locations and over time may go undetected.

Chemical and biological agents used to target specific people or groups are not usually considered emergencies, but rather criminal activity. However, cases such as the Salisbury nerve agent attack in 2018 pose unique challenges that go beyond the capability of the normal responding agencies.

Chemical and biological weapons can be difficult to disperse in an effective manner, if the goal is to expose as many people as possible. If they were to be released in an enclosed space with a large number of people, it could result in a large number of fatalities and injuries depending on the type and amount of agent used.

However, these types of incident would likely require specific expertise, planning, time and sophistication than explosive devices, which also have a greater potential to cause injuries and fatalities. However, a chemical or biological incident is a covert form of attack and increases the odds that the attacker could escape detection.

The least likely type of CBRNE incident is nuclear. A sophisticated nuclear device, such as those used by militaries, would require a large amount of nuclear material. A less sophisticated device would require even more nuclear fuel to work. Countries and nuclear facilities track their usage of nuclear materials and any loss is likely to be noticed and reported. However, it is not impossible to obtain nuclear material.

Human impacts

Terrorism/CBRNE attacks have the potential to result in mass fatalities and injuries depending on factors such as the method of attack and location. Victims and members of the community may experience psychological reactions such as acute stress disorder (ASD) and bereavement

Social Impacts

Given that these attacks are often dramatic, with a significant ‘shock’ factor, this type of incident can cause psychological trauma and effect the functioning of the community. Additionally, such incidents are often designed to instill fear, disrupt social function, and disturb the general well-being of societies through acts of violence

Property Damage

There is a risk of severe property damage. This type of damage is common intent of CRBNE attacks, given the potential for secondary but potentially widespread psychological impact.

Critical Infrastructure Disruptions

An attack against a public transportation system which a large number of the local population relies on for transit may paralyze a city. Rail systems, in particular subways in larger cities have been selected for attack in recent years. While a successful attack on public transit has not occurred in North America, there is also the risk that an attack could disrupt other forms of critical infrastructure such as the electrical grid.

Environmental Damage

While not common, it is possible for a terrorist attack to cause direct or secondary environmental damage.

Economic

Businesses or industries may be directly impacted. There is a possibility that a business or industry may be a target, or that they are located in the impacted area.

Civil Disorder

Go to previous hazard: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive (CBRNE)

Go to next hazard: Cyber Attack

Definition

A group or groups of people engaged in act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, or strike) that disrupts a business, organization or community and requires intervention to maintain public safety.

Description

Civil action and disturbances occur frequently throughout the world and Canada due to political, religious, ideological, and other reasons. While such action can become chaotic or violent and place people at risk, such events are legal and recognized as critical to a functioning democracy. Police and law enforcement agencies serve to protect the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and facilitate groups exercising their rights under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, section 2.

Though civil unrest always occurs because of people intentionally not observing the law, this profile for civil disorder is limited to the following types of action, which could be planned or unplanned:[19]

  • Assaults on public figures, police or security personnel.
  • A violent incident or riot involving destruction of property or a threat to public safety.
  • Violent or non-violent behaviour causing a public safety risk by disrupting services or access to services or assets.

Civil disorder emergencies are uncommon, but some of their potential causes include:

  • Resource shortages
  • High profile/controversial meetings
  • The victory or defeat of a sports team
  • Hostile labour disputes
  • Local, national or international events
  • The implementation of controversial laws polices or court rulings
  • Disagreements between special interest groups over a particular issue or cause

Spatial Scale, Timing and Warning Period

Spatial Scale: Civil disorder is a usually a small-scale phenomenon, affecting a localized area. However, large-scale closures or lockdowns are possible, even if the threat is limited to a single location.

Timing: Civil disorder can occur at any time of the year but it is more likely during the warmer months.

Warning Period: The amount of warning prior to an incident of civil disorder varies.

Potential Impacts

The potential impacts of a civil disorder emergency may include:

  • Property and structural damage, the need for repair. Possible impact on Critical Infrastructure.
  • Injury or death possible.
  • Enhanced surveillance and monitoring activities.
  • Multi-modal transport disruptions, the need for detours or re-routing. May strain transportation management resources and cause transportation delays. \
  • The need for site or area access restrictions.
  • The need to evacuate or shelter in place.
  • The need for increased public safety or policing measures.

Secondary Hazards

Potential secondary hazards associated with civil disorder include:

  • Sabotage

Past Incidents

Two past examples include:

Toronto, 2010: During the 2010 G20 summit in downtown Toronto, a small group caused damage and attempt to incite violence. The windows and store fronts of businesses were damaged and several police cruisers were set on fire. Four major hospitals, several hotels and a major shopping centre located close to the violence were put under lockdown. Public transit services were suspended or diverted.

Ipperwash, 1995: The Ipperwash Crisis took place in 1995 on land in and around Ontario’s Ipperwash Provincial Park, which was claimed by the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation. The underlying cause of the crisis was the appropriation of the Stoney Point Reserve in 1942 by the federal government for use as a military camp. After repeated requests for the land to be returned, members of the Stony Point First Nation occupied the camp in 1993 and in 1995. On September 4, 1995 protesters also occupied Ipperwash Provincial Park nearby. Tension between the protesters and the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) increased, resulting in a confrontation, during which Anthony O’Brien “Dudley” George, an Indigenous protestor, died.

Provincial Risk Statement

Human Impacts

This type of hazard can result in injuries to the participants, police and security forces, bystanders and anyone else in the immediate area. This type of damage depends in part on the intent of the people involved, the degree of violence, and the location and proximity to other people, assets or services.

Riot control agents may also result in injuries and pose a risk of contamination for healthcare providers as they may be transferred during medical assistance.

Social Impacts

Impacts due to civil disorder are uncommon, though threats to critical services or assets may result in this kind of impact.

Property Damage

Property damage, especially to businesses, is the most common and likely impact of civil disorder. Depending on the cause or motivation for the civil disorder, groups may target specific property or businesses.

Critical Infrastructure Disruptions

Perpetrators can specifically target any critical infrastructure. Civil disorder incidents can have significant impacts on the health sector, given the potential for injury and the potential for civil disorder to limit access to healthcare facilities.

Environmental Damage

Environmental damage is not often associated with civil disorder.

Economic

Some businesses may be targeted resulting in property damage or reputational loss. Others may have to close during a civil disorder emergency.

Cyber Attack

Go to previous hazard: Civil Disorder

Go to next hazard: Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)

Definition

An attack via cyberspace, for the purpose of disrupting, disabling, destroying, or maliciously controlling a computing environment/infrastructure; or destroying the integrity of the data or stealing controlled information.[20]

Description

Cyber-attacks use unauthorized access or malicious code to alter computer code, logic or data, resulting in disruptive consequences that can compromise data or misappropriate key systems and resources.Cybercrimes such as online bullying or harassment are therefore out of scope for this profile.

Cyber-attacks have therefore become an increasing national and international concern.[21] Among the most widely accepted and adopted frameworks for understanding and defining cyber security threats is the United States Computer Emergency Response Team (US-CERT) program. It includes specific examples of acts considered cyber-attacks, which can include but are not limited to:

  • attempts (either failed or successful) to gain unauthorized access to a system or its data
  • unwanted disruption or denial of service
  • the unauthorized use of a system for the processing or storage of data
  • changes to system hardware, firmware, or software characteristics without the owner's knowledge, instruction, or consent

There are many types of attacks, including:[22]

  • Denial of Service (D.o.S): A perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users, such the Internet.
  • Ransomware: A type of malware that prevents or limits users from accessing their system, either by locking the system's screen or by locking the users' files, unless a ransom is paid.
  • Information Disclosure: Privacy breach or data leak
  • Spoofing (of user identity): a person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data, thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage.
  • Tampering: The malicious modification of data.
  • Attrition: An attack that employs brute force methods to compromise, degrade, or destroy systems, networks, or services

Such acts can utilize a variety of different methods of attack, including those executed from removable media such as USB devices, the internet, email, theft of equipment or other means.

Cyber security is largely dependent on the policies, protocols and procedures implemented by potential target organizations, which includes any organization or individual with digital infrastructure or data. From a public safety perspective, this includes critical infrastructure, businesses and governments.

While the majority of attacks are not reported, making it hard to track cyber security trends and threats, it is believed that they are increasing.[23] There are many reasons for lack of reporting, including that the victim may be unaware of the attack, unaware of how to report an incident, or concerned about reputational damage. Sections of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) were amended in 2018 came into force on November 1, 2018.[24] These sections add mandatory breach reporting obligations, including the following offences, subject to fines of up to $100,000:[25]

  • deliberately failing to report a data breach
  • deliberately failing to notify an individual as required will be separate offences. (separate offence for every individual)
  • deliberately failing to keep, or destroying data breach records

The Department of National Defence (DND) is responsible for the provision of defence intelligence to inform the Government of Canada threat and risk assessment process, and is responsible for the Communications Security Establishment (CSE). Under CSE, and as a key initiative of the 2018 National Cyber Security Strategy, the cyber security functions from three departments will be united to establish one “unique, innovative, and forward-looking organization” called the Canadian Centre for Cyber Security[26].

Many other organizations also have a role to play with respect to cyber security in Canada, including the Canadian Cyber Incident Response Centre (CCIRC), Shared Services Canada, The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) National Cybercrime Coordination Unit and The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS). Many of these organizations also form critical parts of the Government of Canada Information Technology Incident Management Plan. Additionally, Industry Canada (IC) is responsible for the telecommunications system in Canada, including to ensure the continuity of telecommunications during an emergency.

Cyber attacks range in complexity and resource needs. The most sophisticated cyber threats come from the intelligence and military services of foreign states.[27] In most cases, these attackers are well resourced, patient and persistent. Reports from Canada and across the world confirm that these attacks have succeeded in stealing industrial and state secrets, private data and other valuable information.

Spatial Scale, Timing and Warning Period

Spatial Scale: The spatial scale of a cyber-attack can vary significantly depending on the target and chain reactions.

Timing: Cyber-attacks can occur at any time of the year.

Warning Period: Warning varies since this is a human caused hazard. Threats may or may not be made beforehand.

Potential Impacts

Potential impacts of a cyber-attack may include:

  • Disruption or closure of government, business or financial institutions.
  • Interference with radio-wave and electrical systems. Possible impact on Critical Infrastructure.
  • Loss of data possible.
  • Reputational damage.

Secondary Hazards

Secondary hazards associated with a cyber-attack may include:

  • Hazardous Materials Incident
  • Data Loss

Past incidents

  • WannaCry, 2017: The attack in May 2017 affected more than 300,000 computers across the world, including Canada, and had significant impacts on government agencies. In particular, key systems including telephones and computers at the National Health Service in the United Kingdom were affected.. Demands were issued for payments of $300 to $600 to restore access to locked data.
  • Equifax Hack, 2017: Equifax experienced a security breach from May 13 to July 30, 2017 and notified the public in September 2017. Data of approximately 100,000 Canadian consumers were compromised, in addition to 143 million Americans. Equifax is one of only two major credit-reporting companies in Canada, used by approximately 90 percent of all lenders to estimate customer creditworthiness, and are therefore considered vital to the economy.
  • Ukraine electricity grid, 2015: A cyberattack on the Ukraine electricity grid occurred on 23 December 2015, when hackers were able to successfully compromise systems and temporarily disrupt electricity supply. The attack initially targeted worker information, which then enabled hackers to access SCADA networks and disrupt electricity distribution.

Provincial Risk Statement

Many of Ontario’s critical infrastructure networks and businesses are heavily reliant on computer technology. Attacks can target or effect essential services including the outage or ransom of transportation, healthcare, or government services[28] banking systems, or patient data.[29]

Some particular areas of concern include government, healthcare, and advanced education sectors, due to their valuable data and critical role in society. Also of note are the myriad of private interconnected systems, which make up the economic backbone of Canada and support global systems of commerce and business. Critical Infrastructure systems are routinely targeted and at risk, especially systems which utilize Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems (SCADA) which are known to be particularly vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Such systems include electricity and water treatment plants, gas, telecom, and even transportation systems.

Canada as a whole has been an active participant in the development of information technology and in efforts to counteract, and is one of the first countries to develop laws against, cyber-attacks. Despite this, Canadian legislative frameworks for cyber security still lag behind standards set by world leaders such as the European Union, and all such examples struggle to keep up with the rapid pace of cyber threat evolution.

Human impact

While direct physical effects are not a potential threat of a cyber-attack, the loss of personal information can cause immediate, devastating and long-term consequences for affected individuals. Such situations can cripple an individual or family’s ability to manage simple necessities, and may result in extensive stress and hardship for the affected individuals.

Social Impact

Direct and immediate social impacts are not likely due to a cyber-attack, except as a secondary consequence of other impacts.

Property Damage

Property damage is not often a result of cyber-attacks although there are certain situations where it may occur.

Critical Infrastructure Disruptions

An attack on critical infrastructure could disable that infrastructure and leave thousands without access to that infrastructure.

Environmental Damage

Direct environmental damage is not usually a result of cyber-attacks, although it is possible that a targeted attack could lead to the release of a contaminant.

Economic

A cyber-attack could have significant financial repercussions for a business or organization, including fines imposed through government regulation and compensation to victims of loss of personal information. This is in addition to any direct financial effects of an attack, such as the ransom information for the financial gain of the attacker.

An attack on the stock market or financial institutions could have larger financial repercussions for a local, regional or national economy. Such an incident may also result in a decrease in the public’s trust regarding the security of a system or organization.

Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)

Go to previous hazard: Cyber Attack

Go to next hazard: Geopolitical Pressures

Definition

An EMP is a burst of electromagnetic energy produced by weapons designed and deployed with the intent to produce EMP. An EMP can occur as a radiated, electric, or magnetic field or a conducted electric current, depending on the source.

Description

The principal effect of all EMP is damage to electrical systems, with no known effect on living organisms. An EMP is an ‘explosive’ device in the sense that it emits energy, and the motive for their use can be similar to other types of explosive devices.

However, this is far different that the effects of CBRNE or active threat incidents. CBRNE response is highly specialised, created specifically for response to chemicals, biological agents, radioactive contamination, or physical damage from explosions. For these reasons, EMP and CBRNE are separate hazards.

EMP have a high likelihood of damaging electrical power systems, electronics, and information systems upon which society depends. The range of an EMP is determined by factors including the yield, the altitude, the Earth’s magnetic field, and the surroundings.

This profile covers weaponized EMP, which include:

  • Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP), as a result of a nuclear explosion. A variant of this is the high altitude nuclear EMP (HEMP). capable of destroying susceptible electronic equipment over a wide area
  • Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NNEMP) weapons. These have limited range but can be used to target specific objectives such as infrastructure.[30]

Certain types of EMP can occur secondary hazard of Space Weather or Space Object Crash. These create similar effects as a weaponized EMP, as described in this profile. These types of EMP are as follows:

  • Meteoric EMP. The discharge of electromagnetic energy resulting from either the impact of a meteoroid with a spacecraft or the explosive breakup of a meteoroid passing through the Earth's atmosphere.
  • Coronal mass ejection (CME). A burst of plasma and accompanying magnetic field, ejected from the solar corona and released into the solar wind.

While Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) is the most potentially damaging type of EMP, they are also the most complex and difficult to produce and deploy. An NEMP would only occur in the wake of a nuclear bomb, and a High Altitude Nuclear EMP (HEMP) would need to be detonated far above the Earth's surface.

Metal objects act like antennae, conducting electrical energy emitted by than EMP. These metal objects can include electrical power and telephone lines, pipelines, airplanes, cars, and trucks. EMP associated with high altitudes can affect satellites. EMP can also disrupt or even damage basic electrical distribution equipment[31].

Various government reports, such as the one by the US Congressional EMP Commission and the Congressional Research Service, have confirmed the growing likelihood of EMP events of various kinds[32].

Spatial Scale, Timing and Warning Period

Spatial Scale: The spatial scale of an EMP could be as large as nationwide in the case of a nuclear incident. Non-nuclear EMP has a far more limited range, likely limited to a single asset or grouping of adjacent systems.

Timing: EMP could occur at any time of the year.

Warning Period: Warning varies. Threats may or may not be made beforehand.

Potential Impacts

Potential impacts of an EMP may include:

  • May strain the health system and response resources.
  • Disruption or closure of government, business or financial institutions.
  • Possible loss of electronic payment and debit machines. The need for financial assistance.
  • Loss of data possible.
  • Property damage, the need for repair. Possible impact on Critical Infrastructure.
  • Strain on emergency services and response resources.
  • Interference with radio-wave and electrical systems. Possible impact on Critical Infrastructure.
  • Disruption of navigation and other satellite services.
  • Overloaded communications networks.
  • The need for damage assessment.
  • The need for site or area access restrictions.
  • The need for evacuation or shelter in place.
  • The need for emergency provision of essential needs, including food.
  • The need for increased public safety or policing measures.

Secondary Hazards

Secondary hazards associated with an EMP may include:

  • Data Loss
  • Fire/Explosion
  • Public Safety issues
  • Supply & Distribution issues

Past incidents

The only known uses of weaponized EMP were in tests conducted by the United States and Soviet Military services, respectively.

  • Pacific Ocean, 1962: In the Starfish Prime test in 1962 a 1.44 megaton warhead was donated 250 miles into space. The pulse knocked out street lights and damaged telephones on Hawaii.
  • Kazakhstan, 1962: The Soviet Union also performed three EMP-producing nuclear tests in space.

Provincial Risk Statement

The use of any kind of weaponized EMP is unlikely outside of a state-initiated attack. However, effects include:

Human

Direct human impacts are not likely due to an EMP.

Social Impact

Direct social impacts are not likely due to a cyber-attack; however, the secondary hazards caused from an EMP, including disruption of Critical Infrastructure, and potential economic damage, could have severe effects on the ability to access social supports or networks.

Property Damage

Property damage is not likely from an EMP.

Critical Infrastructure Disruptions

Outages of electrical systems and components can in turn seriously impact other important aspects of daily life over large areas. This could include the financial system; means of getting food, water, and medical care, trade, and production of goods and services.

An EMP attack on critical infrastructure could disable that infrastructure and leave thousands without access to vital services. Critical Infrastructure could be specifically targeted and the effects would likewise have a detrimental effect on the population that relies upon it, and any connected assets, systems services or other Critical Infrastructure. 

Environmental Damage

Direct environmental damage is not likely from cyber-attacks, although it is possible that a targeted attack could lead to a secondary incident such as the release of a contaminant.

Economic

An EMP could have significant financial repercussions for a business or organization. An attack on the stock market could have large scale financial repercussions. Such an incident may also result in a decrease in the public’s trust regarding the viability or robustness of systems or organizations.

Geopolitical Pressures

Go to previous hazard: Electromagnetic Pulse

Go to next hazard: Crowd Disaster

Definition

The influence of foreign and national geopolitical pressures[33], originating beyond Ontario provincial political boundaries, leading to an imminent or real threat to the province.

Description

Geopolitical factors are “the influence of factors as geography, economics, and demography on the politics and especially the foreign policy of a state”.[34] Economic, environmental and other situations can occur as a direct result of geopolitical activity, can worsen existing hazards, or cause secondary emergency conditions.

Such pressures may originate beyond the political boundaries of Canada, such as immigration or conflict. Some pressures may originate within Canada, such as provincial trade disputes or economic crises. Such conditions can lead to an imminent or real threat to people, systems, or assets within the province. Other geopolitical pressures could include regional population displacements, trade disputes or land claims.

These pressures could also lead to joint management and response efforts between jurisdictions. [35]

Examples are grouped by theme below:

Mass Migration

Mass migration refers to the migration of large groups of people from one geographical area to another. This is not the same as individual migration, small-scale migration or seasonal migration, which may occur on a regular basis[36].

While Canada’s geography generally limits migration, there are many historic examples of large-scale movements of people to Canada, such as refugee resettlement.

Such situations are not emergencies unless the needs of the response exceed the existing capacity, requiring extraordinary measures. Such is the case for all hazards.

Regional Volatility and Conflict

Regional policies, conflict, trade and relations can generate geopolitical pressures. For example, the introduction of protectionist policies in other nations can influence the Canadian Economy and effect the availability of key goods and services, such as essential medications.

Another type of threat is war. This is a real or imminent war or other armed conflict that involves Canada or any of its allies that is of sufficient magnitude to be a national emergency. The threat of war or international conflict is always present. A declaration of war anywhere in the world could have an effect on Canada and the Province of Ontario. The possible impacts vary significantly depending on the type of emergency from fatalities to business interruptions.

Economic Instability

Factors such as inflation, consumer confidence issues, unemployment rates, and rising commodity prices can create economic instability. This can affect businesses' ability to thrive, the cost of living, and the physical, emotional and financial well-being of consumers and families.

A sudden rise in the price of a particular commodity, such as oil, is another key example.[37]

The United Nations Public Administration Network also stressed geopolitical pressures as one of Canada’s Top 5 Security and Risk Management Trends for 2018. Specifically, it drew attention to the importance of understanding geopolitical risk in relation to business-critical software, hardware and services purchasing decisions[38].

International Policy Coordination

International policy coordination and cooperation is important for defusing political tensions and containing the secondary hazard of geo-political pressures resulting from crises such as the Ebola pandemic[39]. Such negotiation and mediation would occur outside of Canada, between other international partners. An escalation of ineffective policy coordination could result in an incident that crosses Canadian borders.

Potential Impacts

  • Economic, social, economic or political instability
  • Disruption or closure of government, business or financial institutions.
  • Worsening of existing systemic social issues.
  • Possible financial and economic effects. Including cuts in government spending and effects on service availability.

Secondary Hazards

  • Civil disorder
  • Petroleum product shortage
  • Medical Drug Shortage
  • Food Shortage

Past Incidents

Both situations forced an extensive whole-of-government approach, with collaboration among all federal, provincial, local, NGO and other partners to both manage the influx and settle the refugees in Canada.[40]

  • Rescinding of Temporary Protected Status: The United States government ended ‘temporary protected status’ for almost 300,000 people from 2017 to early 2018. These protections allowed individuals that have suffered environmental disasters to live temporarily in the United States. When the United States rescinded this status, it prompted a new surge of asylum seekers in Canada under the ‘Safe Third Country’ agreement. This surge exceeded some local capacity and led to the provision of some extra-ordinary resources, particularly in communities identified for refugee settlement, but did not lead to a widespread crisis.
  • Global financial crisis 2007-08: Considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. It began in 2007 with a crisis in the Mortgage market in the United States, and developed into an international banking crisis. Excessive risk-taking by banks such as Lehman Brothers helped to magnify the financial impact globally. Canada experienced a recession, resulting in the loss of almost 406,000 full-time jobs between October 2008 and April 2009.[41]

Provincial Risk Statement

Emergencies resulting from geopolitical pressures may result a range of risks:

Human Impacts

Direct human impacts are not a likely result of geopolitical pressures.

Social Impacts

The effect of political, social and economic pressures may result in loss of social cohesion and access to support networks. Factors such as loss of income or housing security may exacerbate such effects, causing increased exposure and vulnerability to a range of other hazards.

Property Damage

Property damage is not likely because of geopolitical pressures.

Critical Infrastructure Disruptions

Disruptions to Critical infrastructure services may occur, particularly if geopolitical pressures interrupt the supplies of vital resources such as medication, fuel or other necessities.

Environmental Damage

Environmental damage is not likely because of geopolitical pressures.

Economic

Severe economic impacts are the most likely consequence of geopolitical pressures. Depending on the situation, economic recession, trade deficits or other effects may cause challenges for Canadian economies.

Crowd Disaster

Go to previous hazard: Geopolitical pressures

Go to next hazard: Sabotage

Definition

Incidents resulting from crowd forces or behaviour that reach levels that difficult to resist or control.

Description

Crowds, or large concentrations of people, occur frequently in modern society. These can be formal or informal gatherings, planned or unplanned.

Occasionally, venue inadequacies and deficient crowd management result in injuries and fatalities. Most such disasters can be prevented by simple crowd management strategies. The primary crowd management objectives are the avoidance of critical crowd densities and the triggering of rapid group movement. Some of the key determinants of risk include the nature of the crowd, staff training, communication procedures, emergency response planning and capacity, and movement pathways.[42]

While few people in a crowd usually intend from the outset to participate in violent activities, violent tendencies can spread throughout the group through a psychological phenomenon called ‘crowd personality’. Collective groups of people can accentuate emotions ranging from happiness to anger in individuals within the crowd. It is therefore possible for a small number of people with the intent to incite violence to greatly influence a crowd.[43]

Crowd behaviours and characteristics can vary from casual to aggressive.[44] Members of aggressive crowds can be threatening and may challenge public safety capacity. They tend to be impulsive and highly emotional and require only minimal stimulation to arouse them to violence.

More recently, online forums and social media have played a substantial role in both the organization, awareness, and planning of response for participation in mass gatherings and large events. These forms of communication are leading to greater instances of unregulated and spontaneous mass gatherings[45]. Such gatherings typically do not follow the same rigorous set of requirements as permitted events, and so pose a greater risk to public safety.

Such trends require law enforcement and other public safety institutions to be proficient at monitoring trends, and the coordination of event information between public safety, civic, and other organizations connected to event management and safety.

Spatial Scale, Timing and Warning Period

Spatial Scale: The spatial scale of a crowd disaster varies depending on the type of event.

Timing: These incidents can occur at any time of year, although large crowds are more common during the warmer months.

Warning Period: Organizers usually plan formal events months in advance, but informal or spontaneous gatherings are less easy to predict.

Potential Impacts

Potential impacts arising from a mass gathering may include:

  • Injury or death possible.
  • The need for site or area access restrictions.
  • Enhanced surveillance and monitoring activities.

Secondary Hazards

Crowd disasters could also lead to:

  • Health emergency
  • Hazmat incident
  • Structural collapse

Past Incidents

No crowd events emergencies have occurred in Ontario. Well-known international examples include:

Saudi Arabia, 2015: At least 2,110 pilgrims were killed in a crushing incident during the hajj.

Duisburg, Germany, 2010: At least 500 were injured and 21 were killed in a crowd disaster at the 2010 Love Parade electronic dance music festival.

Hillsborough, England, 1989: 96 people are crushed to death and 400 were injured at a football match, when police open gates to alleviate crowding outside Hillsborough Stadium. The resulting rush of people trapped fans against riot control fences.

Ohio, United States, 1979: A stampede of concert-goers outside the entry doors at Riverfront Coliseum in Cincinnati, led to the deaths of 11 people.

Ibrox Stadium, Scotland, 1971: The Ibrox disaster was a crush among the crowd at an Old Firm football game, which led to 66 deaths and more than 200 injuries.

Provincial Risk Statement

Human Impacts

Attending to the injured may be challenging in environments with dense crowds or in chaotic situations due to the logistical and safety challenges associated with mass gatherings. Death and injury are the main risk in such incidents.

Social Impacts

Impacts due to civil disorder are uncommon. Support networks and services are unlikely to be affected by this type of event.

Property Damage

Municipal, provincial and federal government buildings, landmarks, universities, plazas and sport venues all experience an increased risk due to their activities. Areas adjacent to or located close by such venues may also be at risk of damage.

Critical Infrastructure Disruptions

Civil disorder incidents can have significant impacts on the health sector. Access to healthcare could experience direct effects from the spillover of people from mass gathering, or from any sudden increase in people requiring medical care. As a result, the health sector requires significant contingency planning for civil disorder.

Environmental Damage

Environmental damage is not often associated with such incidents.

Economic

Some businesses may experience the secondary effects of crowd events, including overflow of violent or affected crowds into residential or commercial areas. Economic effects may also include damage or reputational loss to businesses, venues or other organizations.

Sabotage

Go to previous hazard: Crowd Disaster

Definition

Any acts of coercion, collusion, tampering, destruction, corruption or subversive actions, intended to cause disruption or damage and a threat to public safety

In acts of sabotage, physical human injury is not the intent of the action.

Description

Sabotage is a malicious act that can also be used as part of hybrid attacks on businesses, organizations or countries (in combination with other hazards such as cyber-attack or active threat) or as an independent means to achieve a specific malign intent.

Acts of sabotage may include:

  • Actions intended to influence corporate or government actions
  • Process tampering
  • The intentional release of sensitive, confidential information

Sabotage can result from an internal threat, such as by employees or other people who have routine access (while the access of the general public is controlled) to a targeted facility, site or object. In contrast, external threats arise from people who do not have routine access to the targeted facility, site or object[46].

The motives of people who commit sabotage are extremely varied, but include the intent to gain publicity for a cause or ideology, revenge for perceived injustices or business disruption.

Internal acts of sabotage are more likely to be motivated by perceived injustices to the individual(s) such as labour disputes. External acts of sabotage are more likely to be motivated by political, religious or ideological agendas.

While physical infrastructure damage is not the only way sabotage may lead to significant damage, those targeting critical infrastructure such as oil and gas pipelines or utilities are historically the most likely to be linked to public safety concerns.

Spatial Scale, Timing and Warning Period

Spatial Scale: Sabotage is often a localized hazard.

Timing: Sabotage can occur at any time of the year.

Warning Period: Sabotage is likely to occur without warning, although since this is a human caused hazard, this may vary.

Potential Impacts

Potential impacts of sabotage may include:

  • Property and structural damage, the need for repair. Possible impact on Critical Infrastructure.
  • Enhanced surveillance and monitoring activities.
  • The need for increased public safety or policing measures.
  • Reputational Damage.
  • The need for site or area access restrictions.
  • The need to evacuate or shelter in place.

Secondary Hazards

Secondary hazards associated with sabotage may include:

  • Agricultural and food emergency
  • Civil Disorder
  • Supply & Distribution hazards
  • Structural failure
  • Water Quality Emergency
  • Wastewater Disruption
  • Potable Water Shortage

Past incidents

There have been few incidents of significance in Ontario related to Sabotage, and none recorded that have resulted in emergency management actions. Recent incidents exist that embody the type of risk of sabotage, though did not trigger such actions. One such example is as follows:

  • Ontario, 2017: Pipeline sabotage was recorded in southern Ontario; an anonymous anarchist poured corrosive material into sections of pipe destined for a crude oil pipeline. No significant effects recorded.

Provincial Risk Statement

Rarely, an extreme act of sabotage may have the potential to result in a threat to a large area, or even national security. However, the majority of sabotage acts do not present a threat to public safety and do not result in serious consequences. Sabotage may result in disruptions of the target business, infrastructure, organization or government or negatively affect the organizations’ reputation.

Social Impacts

Sabotage can also result in a public loss of confidence of the government and safety and security services - limited effects on social support networks.

Human impacts

The majority of sabotage incidents do not result in public safety concerns; however fatalities and injuries are possible in extreme cases.

Property Damage

Sabotage may result in property damage, although damage is often localized.

Critical Infrastructure Disruptions

Critical infrastructure may be disrupted if targeted.

Environmental Damage

While environmental damage is not a common direct impact of sabotage, it is possible depending on the target and the nature of the incident, particularly in relation to drinking water.

Economic

Sabotage may have a significant impact on a business, organization or government.

End Notes

[1] Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46) https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-46/page-12.html Accessed October 2017.

[2] Government of Canada, 2017. 2018 Public Report on the Terrorism Threat to Canada https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/pblc-rprt-trrrsm-thrt-cnd-2018/index-en.aspx Accessed December 2018.

[3]Ontario Provincial Police (OPP). 2018. correspondence [via email], September 2018

[4]Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2017. correspondence [via email], December 2017

[5] Gius, Mark, 2015. The Impact of State and Federal Assault Weapons Bans on Public Mass Shootings. Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2015c, pp. 281–284.

[6] United Nations Mine Action Services, Improvised Explosive Device Lexicon, 2016.

[7] 2018 Public Report on the Terrorist Threat to Canada. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/pblc-rprt-trrrsm-thrt-cnd-2018/index-en.aspx. Accessed December 2018.

[8] US Department of Homeland Security, Active Shooter Booklet, 2009. https://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/active_shooter_booklet.pdf

[9] Ministry of Labour, 2018. Firefighter Guidance Note: Active Attacker Events. https://www.labour.gov.on.ca/english/hs/pubs/firefighter_guidance/active_attacker.php Accessed June 2018.

[10] McGovern, Glenn P. (2012). Margaret E. Beare, ed. Securitization After Terror. Encyclopedia of Transnational Crime and Justice. Sage.

[11] McKenzie Institute, 2015. http://mackenzieinstitute.com/active-shooters-can-preempted/

[12]http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/en/gazette/stopping-an-active-shooter. Accessed June 2018.

[13] Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2013. A History of Pressure Cooker Bombs. https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/a-history-of-pressure-cooker-bombs-1.1301728. Accessed February 2018.

[14] Government of Canada, 2018. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives Resilience Strategy for Canada. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rslnc-strtg-rchvd/index-en.aspx Accessed September 2018.

[15] Government of Canada, 2017. 2017 Public Report on the Terrorism Threat to Canada https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/pblc-rprt-trrrst-thrt-cnd-2017/pblc-rprt-trrrst-thrt-cnd-2017-en.pdf. Accessed December 2018.

[16] The Centre for Excellence in Emergency Preparedness, 2010

[17]United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, 2014. https://www.un.org/disarmament/wmd/ Accessed June 2018.

[18]Office of the Fire Marshal and Emergency Management, 2018. correspondence [via email], March 2018.

[19]Ontario Provincial Police (OPP). 2018. correspondence [via email], September 2018

[20] Committee for National Security Systems Instruction 4009, and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2017.

[21]Overview of Cyber Threats, 2018.https://cyber.gc.ca/en/guidance/overview-cyber-threats. Accessed December 2018.

[22] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2017.

[23] Symantec 2018, Internet Security Threat Report (ISTR), Volume 23. https://www.symantec.com/security-center/threat-report

ty safeguards. Accessed December 2018. HYPERLINK "https://www.priv.gc.ca/en/privacy-topics/privacy-breaches/respond-to-a-privacy-breach-at-your-business/gd_pb_201810/#_Part_1" https://www.priv.gc.ca/en/privacy-topics/privacy-breaches/respond-t

[24] Symantec 2018, Internet Security Threat Report (ISTR), Volume 23. https://www.symantec.com/security-center/threat-report

ty safeguards. Accessed December 2018. https://www.priv.gc.ca/en/privacy-topics/privacy-breaches/respond-to-a-privacy-breach-at-your-business/gd_pb_201810/#_Part_1 Accessed December 2018.

[25] Government of Canada, 2018. Order Fixing November 1, 2018 as the Day on which Certain Provisions of the Act Come into Force: SI/2018-32. Canada Gazette, Part II: Volume 152, Number 8.http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2018/2018-04-18/html/si-tr32-eng.html Accessed December 2018.

[26] Canadian Centre for Cyber Security, 2018. https://cse-cst.gc.ca/en/backgrounder-fiche-information

[27] Dr. Philip W. Brunst. Terrorism and the internet: New Threats posed by Cyberterrorism and terrorist use of the internet (2010)

[28]Introduction to the Cyber Threat Environment, 2018. https://www.cyber.gc.ca/en/guidance/introduction-cyber-threat-environment. Accessed December 2018.

[29] Committee for National Security Systems Instruction 4009

[30] Washington State Department of Health, 2003. https://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/Pubs/320-090_elecpuls_fs.pdf

[31] Instant Access Networks, LLC and Sage Policy Group, Inc., 2007.

[32] http://www.empcommission.org/docs/empc_exec_rpt.pdf

[33] Devetak et al. (eds), An Introduction to International Relations, 2012, p. 492.

[34] "Geopolitics." Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2018.

[35] Global Risk Report, 2018. Zurich https://www.zurichna.com/_/media/dbe/zna/docs/kh/geopolitical/global-risks-report-2018.pdf?la=en&hash=0A5C07B2AF3A99E8DFBE1E177BC690FEE1BC1C3A

[36] UN OCHA, Annual Report, 2017. https://www.unocha.org/sites/unocha/files/2017%20annual%20report.pdf

[37] Energy security risks and risk mitigation: An overview. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, 2008. https://www.unisdr.org/files/8066_Pagesfromannualreport2008.pdf

[38] United Nations Public Administration Network, 2018. http://www.unpan.org/Regions/NorthAmerica/PublicAdministrationNews/tabid/118/mctl/ArticleView/ModuleId/1473/articleId/58284/Default.aspx

[39] World Economic Situation & Prospects Report, 2018. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/document_gem/global-economic-monitoring-unit/world-economic-situation-and-prospects-wesp-report/

[40] Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, 2017

[41] Kindleberger, C. & Aliber, R. 2005. Manias, Panics, and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises, 5th ed. Wiley.

[42] Still, Keith G. 2017. The causes and prevention of crowd disasters. http://www.gkstill.com/Support/crowd-flow/fruin/Fruin2.html Accessed December 2018.

[43] Nassauer, Anne. "Effective crowd policing: empirical insights on avoiding protest violence." Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 38.1 (2015): 3-23.

[44] Gulley, Jacklyn. "Multitudes Gather: An Overview and Analysis of the Evolution of Research Concerning Crowd Behavior." JCCC Honors Journal 6.1 (2015): 2.

[45] Mercea, 2011. Digital prefigurative participation: The entwinement of online communication and offline participation in protest events.

[46] Baybutt and Ready (2003)